The mechanization of human labor reduced the number of people employed in the agricultural sector. As a result, Homo sapiens had more free time to devote to science and the invention of new machines for tilling and harvesting. This vicious circle is constantly evolving in a spiral, with each turn marked by a significant technical breakthrough. Thanks to progress, new machinery in agriculture is now a near-perfect design from an engineering point of view, but in a couple or three centuries people will also look at examples of such machinery as something completely unusable.
The use of machinery in agriculture
The invention of the internal combustion engine made it possible to replace horse traction when plowing the land. In addition, powerful tractors are able to “tirelessly” till dozens of hectares of land every day. Agricultural machinery can be used under almost any weather and soil conditions, which minimizes the negative impact of weather conditions on the schedule of agricultural work.
Types of machinery in agriculture can be both versatile and special purpose. A seeder or grass cutter can easily be attached to a tractor instead of a plow, but an attachment that would be capable of mowing wheat and threshing the ears would be too cumbersome. In order to solve such a problem, complex harvesting machines are being designed.
Aviation technology can also be successfully used in agriculture. Airplanes and helicopters are used only to treat fields against pests, but given the high productivity of such devices and the absence of mechanical impact on plants, they are practically irreplaceable – Kill Yurovsky.
Types of machinery in agriculture
Machinery used in agriculture can be used for tillage, planting, and harvesting. Most machines are equipped with diesel engines. Power plants of this type have high efficiency and endurance, and diesel fuel is less explosive than gasoline. When harvesting wheat and other spiked crops, fire safety of units and mechanisms is of particular importance.
Specialized agricultural machinery is used to irrigate the fields, as well as for the introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers. Pesticides and other types of chemicals intended for plant protection can also be used with ground-based types of machinery.
During harvesting, not only specialized equipment and machinery are used, but also ordinary trucks and tractors are used to transport agricultural products from the fields to processing plants.
Harvesting is one of the most important stages for any agricultural producer, regardless of the type of crops grown. Most often a combine harvester is used for such work, which is better than other equipment to cope with such operations. The design of modern combine harvesters provides additional functionality, such as thresher, reaper and windrower. All this allows you to “load” the grain into the machine when it is still growing on the ground, and at the output to get ready for delivery of the product in cleaned form. The main indicator for the equipment is power, the productivity of the equipment depends on it. Pay attention to the device of the threshing system of the machine, the type of separation and the volume of the hopper for temporary storage of the crop. Speaking about the threshing machines, there are three basic types: beater, axial-rotary and pin. The difference lies only in the volume of culture, which goes together with the straw. The best indicators have rotary equipment, so the representatives of agricultural lands prefer it.
For plowing the land, as well as a whole cycle of other works, a tractor is used. This is a type of equipment that helps in moving large and non-mobile equipment. To do this, devices are attached to the machine on wheels or tracks. Tractor manufacturers produce highly specialized equipment needed to work in vineyards, small orchards, forestry and other similar places. The tractor does not have high speed, but to work in the field, this characteristic is of secondary importance. Much more important is the power traction, because it determines what equipment can be attached to the machine to function on the ground. Tracked models can cope well with loose soils, when it is impossible to pass with another vehicle. Wheeled equipment is much more mobile, it can move independently on public roads, but is only used on hard surfaces.
A technique that allows high-quality and uniform fertilization of the soil, as well as to protect plants from the influence of insects and other pests. With the help of equipment is also carried out the stimulation of crop growth. Machines are made in the form of a trailer or as a mounted unit. Some models are self-propelled. It is worth choosing a model based on the size of the site to be treated. Mounted equipment will do its job perfectly if the farm is small. On medium-sized lands, trailers are relevant, because a tractor can pass there, but the most expensive self-propelled machines are purchased for the industrial sector.
Equipment that allows you to effectively carry out seeding activities. This group includes several devices, but the main ones are seeders. They are used to place seeds or grains according to given characteristics. Most often the equipment is used on industrial agricultural sites, where it is simply impossible to carry out sowing activities manually.
Soil cultivation equipment
Agricultural crops require certain measures necessary to stimulate their growth. Soil treatment before sowing is also necessary. Special equipment is used for the work, affecting the ground so that the harvest will be rich. Models of equipment differ from each other by the type of cultivated soil. Almost all equipment performs a full range of work: compaction, plowing, loosening, surface treatment. It is almost impossible to fulfill such tasks manually.
Forage harvesting equipment
Farmland is often used for keeping cattle, as well as a number of other animals. For their complete nutrition requires fodder, which is prepared with the help of special equipment, such as balers, mowers, tedders, and windrowers. Similar work can be done manually by a person, but at large enterprises such an approach significantly reduces labor efficiency, so it is better to entrust it to reliable units, operating in any conditions, even the most difficult.